The diffpdf tool provides a graphical summary of differences between two pdf documents.
$ diffpdf doc01.pdf doc02.pdf
This will not find differences for image based PDF files that might come for example from a document scan. Such a pdf document contains an image of the text rather than the text itself, and hence it is not possible to compare text between such documents as is. See Section 66.12 to recognise the text within an image-based pdf and to mark up the original pdf with the text to then allow a comparison of two image-based pdf documents.
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